The new MLA Handbook recommends including URLs in works-cited-list entries for online works, but it also notes their drawbacks: they can cause clutter, become obsolete, and have limited use in a print work.
URLs may also be inaccessible when the pages to which they refer are behind a paywall. In this post, I offer commonsense guidelines on treating URLs in works-cited-list entries.
First, it is important to keep in mind that documentation has two main goals: it should testify to the veracity of your research and provide readers with information about your source that allows them to retrace your steps. Ensuring the enduring availability and retrievability of a source is not the primary objective of documentation, even though the Internet allows for the retrieval of online works referred to in other online works. Similarly, you would document a letter in a private collection, even though it might not be accessible to your readers.
When deciding whether and how to include a URL in a works-cited-list entry, you should balance the goals of testifying and retracing. A good litmus test might be this: if your works-cited-list entry adequately achieves the primary goal of vouching for your work, then ask yourself whether providing a URL will help readers wishing to retrace your footsteps.
If the URL leads to a source that is behind a paywall or defunct by the time you submit or publish your work or if the URL cannot be publicly resolved, then retrieving becomes difficult or even impossible, but readers may still glean information from the URL that helps them understand the path of your research. For example, the root of the URL may lead to a home page where readers can log in with their own credentials, pay to see the source, evaluate the credibility of the site that published the source, or locate the source under a new URL.
So you have a ten-page-long URL. Now what? As Russell W. Omitting the URL altogether, however, may not make it clear that the source you are citing appears online. The question is, How long is too long? If the URL compromises the readability of your entry, then it is too long. Thus judgment is called for, since whether a URL hinders the readability of the works-cited-list entry will depend on the entry.
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The length of the entry is one factor: if a URL is several lines longer than the rest of the entry, it will run the show. The placement of the URL is another factor: a URL at the end of an entry generally makes the entry easier to read than does a URL that appears before optional information that is appended to the entry.
As a general guideline, a URL running more than three full lines is likely to interfere with the readability of the entry. In addition, sometimes file-specific information or a query string is appended:.
If you need to shorten it further, retain the host, which will allow readers to evaluate the site and search for the source. To ensure that a URL is accurately reproduced, never introduce a hyphen or space in it. Professionally typeset publications in fixed formats, like print or PDF, normally follow rigorous conventions for breaking URLs. Publishers vary in their practices. In its own professionally typeset publications, the MLA breaks URLs before a period and before or after any other punctuation or symbol e.
We do not break URLs after a hyphen in such publications, to avoid ambiguity. Grooms, Russell W. Infolit6 Sept. Angela Gibson is the director of scholarly communication at the MLA. Before coming to the MLA, she taught college courses in writing and literature. One drawback is that shorteners obfuscate the information encoded in the URL, so writers should weigh the pros and cons of using them for each project.
Angela, the data contained inside of a URL is not encoded. It is all readable clear text that simply contains the directions to a pages server inside of the Internet.Unlike regular. Here's how to create a. The Internet Shortcut object is used to create shortcuts to Internet sites or web documents.
Internet shortcuts are diverse from regular shortcuts which contain data in a binary file that point to a document or an application. Such text files with a. The easiest way to look inside a. URL file is to open it inside Notepad.
The content in its simplest form of an Internet Shortcut could look like this:. As you can see. The URL represents the address location of the page to load. You can easily programmatically create an Internet shortcut if you have the URL of the page to which you want to link. When double-clicked, the default browser is launched and displays the site or a web document associated with the shortcut.
Here's a simple Delphi function to create a. URL file. One of the neater features of the. URL file format is that you can change the shortcut's associated icon. By default the. URL will carry the icon of the default browser. If you want to change the icon, you only have to add two additional fields to the. URL file, as in:. The IconIndex and IconFile fields let you specify the icon for the. URL shortcut. The IconFile could point to your application's exe file IconIndex is the index of the icon as a resource inside the exe.
Being called an Internet Shortcut, a. URL file format does not permit you to use it for something else—such as a standard application shortcut. For example, you could create an Internet Shortcut icon on the Desktop that points to your program's exe file.
When you double click on such a. URL file, your application will be executed. Here's an example of such an "Internet Shortcut":. You can use this code to create a shortcut to your program:.
Note: simply call "CreateSelfShortcut" to create a shortcut to your program on the Desktop. Those handy. URL files will be useful for virtually every project. When you create a setup for your applications, include a. URL shortcut inside the Start menu —let users have the most convenient way to visit your website for updates, examples, or help files. Share Flipboard Email.
Zarko Gajic. Computer Science Expert. Twitter Twitter.There is no shortage of companies offering URL shorteners these days, but they all have a slightly different angle, plan, or feature set.
There are dozens of plugins, websites, and open-source code bases that allow you to shorten a link or use a redirect to move users and traffic from one web address to another. This is a frequently solved problem. And other factors that are still very important for all URL shorteners include reliability, speed, and uptime. This is one of the main reasons I recommend not using your own domain and hosting for your URL shortener. We rated each URL shortener based on what we thought would be the most important consideration factors for users:.
Price — what you might have to pay, what paid offerings do they have, and how do they compare with other URL shorteners. User base — How many customers do they have and how stable are they as a company. Quality of education — How are they doing when it comes to teaching their audience about their tools? Link branding — How easy do they make it customize to your domain and make branded short links? For you personally, you need to make a decision based on how many links and how much traffic you plan to generate using the URL shortener, the size of your budget, the size of your team, and the purpose you are using the URL shortener for.
Is it for social media? Or online advertising? Affiliate marketing? Personal branding? The list goes on…. If you are only using it to share a handful of links on your personal social channels, or are running a small local business, then you will never really need a paid version.
If you are under 2, link clicks, and only need or fewer links created a month, you can rest assured that you should not be paying for your URL shortening services. Are you ready for massive traffic and willing to pay to track it? Then you can afford some of the higher tiered offerings from Rebrandly, ClickMeter, and others. Are you still in the early stages of your startup and only have one member on your marketing team?
Then you probably should be using a fairly cheap, or free, solution until you make it big. Some URL shorteners make team management a piece of cake, while others force you to share an account. Some of these URL shorteners are structured simply to help embed UTM parameters and allow you to better track links in Google Analytics we do this also, by the waywhile others are focused on helping you monetize your links by inserting interstitial ads.
Branded links have reinvented the way we create and share links both on and offline, turning every link into a promotion for your brand.URL Shortening is one of the reliable and easiest method to make money. Link shortener networks allow its publishers to earn money when you use their tools to shorten long URL links to tiny urls. To make money from this method website is not mandatory, if you use website to earn, then you can make money very quickly.
You can place your shorten url links on your social media sites or website or forums etc. If any visitor clicks on your tiny url links then some amount will be added to your url shortener account. This methods is very easy to earn money quickly. Clksh is grown very quickly because of its cpm rates and honest. It is a sister site of ShrinkEarn. I like ClkSh because it is paying all its users from past 2 years on daily basis without scamming anyone so, you can believe clk.
If any one searching for Top and best url shortener service then i recommend this url shortener to our users. While writing Clk. Like za.
Also read: Clk. Payment Time: Daily. It offers very High payout rates to all its users to sharing their shorten links online. Also it is listed in Best Adf.
Also it is a best choice for advertisers to create campaigns. So, why are you waiting? Good features of this url shrotener is they count multiple views from same visitor so, this wonderful feature help you to earn lots of money in short time. Also it provides some best features to its users to earn more, which are Multiple tools, multiple views counting, Decent cpm rate, good referral program, best customer support.
We listed this network as high paying companies list so, why are you waiting just share link earn money. Linkvertise is a new paying url shortener site with decent cpm rates, it pays on monthly basis via PayPal, Paysafecard, Amazon voucher and Bank transfer to all its users on time.
If you want to earn money then create a shorten link using any long url link by using their tools. Their cpm rates are depending on visitors country. Good thing about this url shortener is it does not use pop up ads or any irritating ads on their site.
Best URL Shorteners and how to choose the right one
Like shrinkearn. It is a good alternative site for shorte. Linkvertise site is available in English and dutch.Long web links are so old-fashioned, and boy! Do they ever look spammy. Check out the following URL shortening providers that you can get started with using right away. If you need to change your URL on your social network page, it's easy to do. Bitly is at the top of the URL shortening game. It's one of the most widely used options out there, and you'll often find it integrated with lots of other services as well as third-party apps like TweetDeck and TwitterFeed.
With Bitly, you can track how many clicks your shortened links receive, plus bookmark and organize your links on your own personalized Bitly dashboard. TinyURL used to be one of the top shortening choice in the past, and people still use it a lot today, however it does include a couple more characters compared to others like Bit. With TinyURL, you can actually customize the end letters and numbers as an option. This is a nice extra feature if branding is important to you or if you want to make your link easier to memorize.
Another popular alternative, Ow. You can also share files, images, and videos easily with Ow. The real benefit of using this link shortener comes with using it in conjunction with HootSuite itself for all your social media marketing. The more clicks you get on your AdF. Although the earnings are small, it can certainly add up if you can attract a lot of clicks.
You can use this service with or without an account. Tweet Share Email. More from Lifewire.However, there may be times when you want more control or options such as search results and items in your places list. To create your map link, start with the base URL for Bing Maps shown below, and then add parameters to customize the map. Parameters specify things like the map center point, zoom level, map view area that you want your map to displaysearch results and more.
Available parameters and examples are provided in the sections below. To open Bing Maps with the map centered on a specific location with a zoom level of 12, and the map view set to the road map view:.
Shorter URLs | Tinycc Free
To open Bing Maps with the map centered on a specific location, the map view set to bird's eye oblique image, and a specified zoom level and scene:. Use the following search parameter modifiers with the ss parameter to specify how results are displayed. To create a map that displays directions from a specific start and end point, use the following parameters.Rick Astley - Never Gonna Give You Up (Video)
Use the following identifiers with the rtp parameter to specify the endpoints of a route. The destination is specified using the rtp and pos parameters described above. To create a map that displays information from the collections editor or a specific collection, use the following parameters. Skip to main content. Exit focus mode.
Latitude and longitude are commonly presented in decimal degrees as two numbers, such as Valid values are This parameter is ignored when a search parameter, such as ss or where1is specified. A table of search parameters is provided below. Valid values for this parameter include: - a : Display an aerial view of the map. You can use this parameter with a lvl value of 1 or 2 and a dir value to view different formats of the map image. Valid values are 0 for North, 90 for East, for South, and for West.
The text is the same text that you type in the upper search box in Bing Maps to search for a specific address or place name. Use this parameter to display search results for a business.
Search Parameter Modifiers Use the following search parameter modifiers with the ss parameter to specify how results are displayed. Modifier Definition Example Details sst search parameter modifier sst. Use the following values with the sst parameter to specify the sort option. Each of the waypoints is defined by either a pos position or adr address identifier. These identifiers are described in the table below.
A complete route contains at least two waypoints. The second option specifies whether traffic is displayed. Example represents Sept 30, at pm. You can use any of the parameters listed in the previous tables to specify your waypoints. Collections editor items are defined as a category and value, separated by a period.
There are five categories: adrpointpolylinepolygonand yp. These are described in the next table. Category Definition Details adr address Specifies an address to add to the collections editor.Size x. Play Count number of times to play the gif - 0 means loop forever. Filesize optimization Advanced smaller files Basic safer for frame extraction. Want to increase these limits and make smoother, higher quality gifs? Check out Imgflip Pro! The Imgflip watermark helps other people see where the GIF was created.
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